Under such conditions, one understands the necessity for an intensive agriculture requiring the full energies of the Balinese peasant as well as his ingenuity or rather. One should say engineering, as irrigation of terraced rice fields, a well-known south-east Asia technique, is outstandingly well developed in Bali. One also understands the absence of rice or any other staple in the list of items exported either on the domestic or the foreign markets. Rice production is increasing though, at an incredible annual rate of 53.13 per cent over the years 1968 to 1971 which keeps it well ahead of the population growth estimated as a result of the 1971 census at only 2,5 per cent.
Maize has been slowly decreasing in importance and various kinds of tubers and beans are increasing. But it has to be said that an estimation of output of these staples is made particularly difficult by the fact only a very small amount of these products appear on the market while great attention officially paid to every stage in the production and distribution of rice. Coffee is the main export and Bali ranks as the third province within Indonesia for this item, which between 1969 and 1973 accounted for over 70 per cent of the total value of Balinese export. Rubber is far behind with only about 10 per cent, while cattle varies at around 20 per cent of the total value. In fact, it is estimated that in 1971 – 20.000 head of cattle were exported, while 25.000 were consumed locally. As for pigs, the numbers were 60.000 and 30.000 respectively. This give a rough idea of the dietary habits of the Balinese. These habits must also be seen in different perspectives.
Firstly, the ratio between items containing protein and those based on vegetables is not easily computed from the movement of goods in the market as so much is produced and consumed domestically, maize, beans and tubers, on the one hand, and fish and ducks, on the other.
Secondly, according to the region it may or may not be possible to grow rice in irrigated fields. But, cutting across these distinctions, there is another distinction to be introduced. All along the central mountain ridge running from west to east and down to its continuation and on the island of Penida off Klungkung dwell a category of Balinese who are generally considered as the original inhabitants. It is widely held that they represent an earlier, aboriginal population, though this is not a wholly satisfactory theory. There people of the watershed, the Bali age differ tremendously and in many respects from the lowland Balinese. One of the many sets of differences is that they eat maize, tubers and beans rather than white rice. In addition, the Penida islanders steam their food instead of boiling it. There contrasts are not just a question of environmental differences. Indeed where maize grows, dry rice cultivation is equally possible.
Industry is not very significantly developed. Goods produced locally are those which it would cost more to import like carbonated beverages, soap and cigarettes, or to process elsewhere such as canning and printing. One important local industry is the production of handicrafts. Undoubtedly however. It is the tourist industry which attracts most attention from the Indonesian national and provincial authorities as well as from the outside world. Being the subject matter of this report it will not be developed in annex.
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